Q The study was delimited to male primary school teachers of the three districts namely Mardan, Peshawar and Swabi. <>stream This apparently, optimistic picture could be the result of two things: a) teachers’ and learners’, limited experience of alternative pedagogies and assessment practices and b) a, focus on gaining high grades in English as short-term goals for success in their, A comparison of learners’ socio-economic status with their English language scores, bracket (upper third of the population) consistently outperformed learners in the, of high family income with students’ higher levels of proficiency in English, as seen, in Figure 1, may be attributed to their earlier education in private English medium, schools compared to students in the lower income brack, Mansoor 2009). /XC5 10 Tf At the beginning of the chapter we noted that Brock-Utne, a leading advocate of, education through indigenous languages in African countries, asks, ‘Education, for all – in whose language?’ She also asks (in the title of a chapter in Brock-Utne, 2000), ‘Whose language and for whose development?’ In this way, the view that English should be used as a medium of instruction particularly in. Language policy in Pakistan. Q The status of English in Malaysia has been in constant debate. Q universities to enable them to compete with their more fortunate counterparts. /XC1 10 Tf 1 0 0 1 -340.05 26 Tm In this context, a pertinent question asked by Br, ‘Education for all – in whose language?’ Brock-Utne ar, that, ‘The concept “education for all” becomes a completely empty concept if the, linguistic environment of the basic learners is not taken into account’ (2000:1, The complex relationship between language, po. 0 0 0 rg ( Akram & Mahmood 7)Tj Indeed, the race for individual prosperity and, economic development at the national level seem to ha. Traditional During Covid-19, Language Assessment in Higher Education: Challenges and Consequences. <>stream 1 w q BT The Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a culturally and linguistically diverse large South Asian country bordered by Afghanistan and Iran to the north and west, China to the northeast, India to the east and the Arabian Sea to the south. Assessment has a strong impact on language teaching and learning and the challenges in assessment hamper the language teachers from designing useful assessment. The respondents were selected through non-probability sampling technique, subject to their agreement to participate as respondents in the study. Q Language teaching in difficult circumstances, Glenda E. Fortez 2. The faculty interviewed showed lo, uncertainty about the future of the Centre as other University departments vied for. /XC0 10 Tf endobj (Language in India 7 : 12 December 2007)Tj ET bilingual discourse is commonly used in the classroom (Shamim and Allen 2000; see also Cleghorn and Rollnick 2002 for similar findings from African classrooms). Practice: A South-Asian Perspective. q repertory in which all linguistic abilities have a place. 10 0 obj 18 0 obj Overall, 3,552 learners in these univ, to a questionnaire that was administered to them on a cohort basis in English, classes that were selected using pre-defined criteria. /XC5 10 Tf Q The findings reveal that teachers and students encounter several obstacles that hinder them in acquiring effective English learning. sustained? Harlech-Jones, B., Baig, M., Sajid, S. and ur-Rahman, S. 2005. in the Northern Areas of Pakistan: A decade of rapid expansion. ET An international Labor Organization Project in Cambodia, Graeme Storer 12. ��r駩V����W�R (S�5K)\�.��wF�h��Κ�6��x���1_W���(U��\����Ȱv����z�x�Z�Y��CP�/\p�uW�T>�0��9^��C�KC�+��6:ډ�3�qy�H��2Ev����1��D�ut� 'L�C�v�x�,�0V��?5 ��*�7 1^Y���c1>�b ��S"i� V)|^y\}2 q The Centr, was given a building by the university authorities; this was r, project funds. /XC6 10 Tf endobj These, and similar challenges abound in the majority of African countries and many other, et al. ET 13 0 obj 0 Tr Additionally, the case of a donor-funded pr, at a professional university is used to illustrate the issues in ‘e, for enhancing students’ English language skills in public sector institutions, in, thus more realistic language-in-education policies in Pakistan. 0 0 0 rg ET ET 0 Tr The challenge is for education systems to adapt to these complex realities and, provide a quality education which takes into consideration learners’ needs, while. Politics and Practice. The communication and pedagogy are part and parcel of each other as well as the teaching process. Listening, speaking, reading and writing are the four dimensions of communication. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, language classrooms in Pakistan. Q Q Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data collected between 1996 and 2001 on Mount Kilimanjaro, this longitudinal study of secondary school students' lives after graduation sheds light on the relationship between language and development. English language is a living stream of world knowledge. <>stream <>stream Comparative. ( Status & Teaching of English in Pakistan )Tj q Unpublished research r, Institute for Educational Development, Aga Khan University, in higher education in Pakistan. Parents prefer to send their childr, private schools, which do not offer high quality education, in the hope that, their children will learn English. Discovering resources in Ho Chi Minh City, Terry Clayton and Jonathon Shaw 13. Business visits in Papua New Guinea, George Kershaw 14. Through improv, Pakistan’ and ‘contribute considerably to supplement the efforts of government to, improving the teaching and learning of English ‘will help the graduates of public, sector universities and institutions of higher learning to compete for good jobs in, Advancement in learning English is unequivocally linked to technological, development, particularly in the field of information and communication technology, economic gains. <>stream the Education for All Declaration (Jomtien, Thailand, 1, documents see the UNESCO Education for All website at, examination in the earlier study (Shamim and T, relating to Pakistan, see Appendix 2 below, Details about the second phase of the ELTR ar, ‘English medium’ schools has mushroomed, even in the rural ar, (Harlech-Jones et al. /XC6 10 Tf Q ET endstream (Language in India 7 : 12 December 2007)Tj This article discusses sociocultural and other theoretical aspects of the language-in-education debate in the light of their practical implications for language policy and teacher education in linguistically diverse school settings. The data was collected through questionnaire and analyzed through percentage and chi-square. ET Abbreviations and Acronyms Section 1: Setting the Scene Section 2: Coping with Change 1. Is it, therefore, surprising that par, education for their children? In contrast, the Higher Education Commission’s English Language T, education institutions in Pakistan. ET Karachi: Aga Khan University and Oxford, English and employment in pakistan. The second question, practitioners – of our responsibility to take up the challenge of drafting viable, language polices and workable implementation plans for language-in-education, programmes that aim to promote individual, societal and national de. endstream 1 w each type of the speech acts was uttered in different functions. q Trends, issues and challenges in English language education in Pakistan. A general protocol was developed for translation of questionnaires into Urdu, describing each step in the translation procedure. 0 0 0 rg Q Q Similarly, feedback, both oral and written, on assigned written work. In private schools, while English is ‘officially’ the medium of instruction. 1 0 0 1 -340.05 26 Tm English language courses are offered mainly at the undergraduate le, are also some courses in postgraduate programmes in certain departments such as, Business and Management Sciences. ET The study determined to find out the status of English language teaching at primary level by focusing grade 4 in the government primary schools in Punjab, Pakistan, after the introduction of English as a compulsory subject from grade 1 in 2002. 1 0 0 1 229.1 26 Tm 24 0 obj BT 0 Tr ET (Coleman 20, language in development, where English is view, language as development, with English being taught ‘as an end in itself’, language for development, where ‘English is used as a tool for other domains of, language of development, ‘the discourses that construct the ways in which. Next, I briefly, examine issues and challenges in the teaching-learning of English, such as the, possible consequences of current language policy on the literacy level of childr. Though ther, evidence to substantiate his claim, the relationship between language and, development is certainly worthy of attention from linguists and resear, A careful consideration of these two questions tells us that it is neither politically, correct nor possible for education systems dependent on large amounts of money, from international donor agencies in developing countries such as Pakistan to, skills, for development. /XC5 10 Tf Furthermore, Q endobj This is in sharp, contrast to the policy of having just one national language as a marker of unity, and nationhood, prevalent among nations in South Asia and Africa during the early, UNESCO’s position paper titled ‘Education in a multilingual world’ (2003) urges a, change in attitudes towards multilingualism as it is a reality in many nations of the, world. The primary school teachers, who successfully completed grade III training English as Medium of Instruction in Khyber Pukhtunkhawa, were the population. endobj BT Q The four main skills of the English language are reading, listening, speaking, and writing. Q BT ET 31 0 obj<> With the level of, proficiency in English being a major indicator of social class, quality of educational, standards and learning outcomes, it is not surprising that for many people there, is a fuzzy boundary between being educated and knowing English (see also, Ramanathan 2005). The purpose of this study is to identify learners’ perception learning English via free online resources and traditional learning. ET English language - English language - Varieties of English: The abbreviation RP (Received Pronunciation) denotes what is traditionally considered the standard accent of people living in London and the southeast of England and of other people elsewhere who speak in this way. al. Unpublished research report. local and global needs and the ‘language apartheid’ which Pakistan is experiencing. BT q The origin of Urdu goes back several centuries, and according to some historians, Urdu has evolved from an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the area around Delhi which absorbed words fr… 0 Tr Current Literacy Rate in Pakistan 2020 (Updated) As of January 2020, Pakistan vows to raise literacy rate from 58% to 70% in four years by providing school access to approximately 22.8 million students, improving the education system for all age groups through the application of modern technological resources.. Primary: 22,650,000; Post-Secondary: 1,949,000 We draw on studies carried out in African classrooms where subjects such as science were being taught via English, an L2 for most learners. 1 w Q English as the language for development in Pakistan: Sustainability of ESP projects: A case study fr, Activity types and patterns of interaction in, Multilingual societies and planned linguistic change: New, irst Language First: Community-Based Literacy Programmes for Minority, Postcoloniality and English: Exploring language policy and, More than just ‘technology’: English language teaching, , the British Council seeks to make a pow. <>stream Consultants and counterparts, Dewi Murni and Susan Spencer 18. 1 0 0 1 229.1 26 Tm q Since sustenance of regional languages is equally important, this study has educational policies implication and suggestions for classroom practices practice suggests that both teachers and language in education policy makers take practical steps for ensuring maximum use of English in university classrooms. uttered by the students on their EFL classroom communication, and to examine the (2002:327-328) identify at least four kinds: the socio-economic development of the country, In Pakistan, English is viewed mainly as the language for development at both, the individual and national levels. 0 0 0 RG 1 w 0 0 0 RG ET donor-funded projects. Teaching and Learning in Pakistan: The Role of Language in Education, The Role of English in Individual and Societal Development: A View From African Classrooms, Development, culture & language: ethical concern in a postcolonial world, TheEnglish-Vernacular Divide: Postcolonial Language Politics and Practice, Language and Development: Teachers in a Changing World, Postcoloniality and English: Exploring Language Policy and the Politics of Development in Tanzania, Hold Your Courses: Language Education, Language Choice, and Economic Development. 0 Tr 0 0 0 RG 1 0 0 1 36 26 Tm endstream 0 0 0 RG 0 0 0 RG 0 Tr q q The data shared in this paper indicate that the current National Education Policy, including the Draft National Curriculum 2020, which insists on the use of Urdu or English as the main MOI, has been unable to provide quality and equitable education to children across the country. endobj Many of the factors measured by these questionnaires are complex and apply to a different culture. He concludes that English plays, facto language for development in developing countries. endobj q q Developing English in development contexts, Achieving quality in education for all, irrespective of the medium of education, Balancing language needs and provision for the teaching-learning of English and, Combating linguistically defined social stratification and. 0 Tr 1 0 0 1 -340.05 26 Tm It is not surprising, then, that ther, general sense of dissatisfaction with the current level of English pr, Teachers’ and learners assessment of the curr, language courses highly in terms of meeting their future needs. In the pr, and in the postgraduate departments offering English language programmes in, English language programme is managed by the department concerned or by the, department or faculty of Social Sciences, if there is one. ( Status & Teaching of English in Pakistan )Tj q ET Real play in Singapore, Dorothy Cheung 10. 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