the gaps in its remembrances, relies upon, relocates itself within, momentarily merges with, the collective memory. Archaeological findings repeatedly show that this very site, often dubbed as the "nursery of Homo Sapiens," has served as an abode for man almost since his appearance on the face of the earth. A lush subtropical vegetation graced the well-tended gardens of its houses and lined its winding alleyways. Daily routines were carried out within clearly defined quarters, and the neighborhood survived as an almost self-sufficient community with which the individual identified. harbor facilities, Damascus railways, gas lights, potable water, electric tramways, telegraph and postal services, quarantine, dispensaries and hospitals along with schools, colleges and printing houses) assisted naturally in the expansion and urbanization of Beirut. Together these defining elements continue to be vital in informing the way Beirut, and its central square in particular, could continue to serve as a vibrant and transcending public sphere amenable for collective mobilization and for forging a hybrid popular culture for tolerance and peaceful co-existence. As Ernest Renan reminds us, most of the social contract theories of the state, upon which modern democracies are based, assume that their members are prepared to forget the more divisive differences which on occasion pull them apart. Periodicals and special issues of noted journals, most prominently perhaps the feature page on 'heritage' by the Beirut daily An-Nahar, are devoting increasing coverage to matters related to space, environment, and architectural legacy. they create memory of action, of relation, of interaction and of creation. Subscribe to our newsletter and we will keep you posted with our activities. More compelling Beirut is in another critical threshold in its checkered history. In: Fragoulaki, Maria and Constantakopoulou, Christy eds. From its eventful past, much like its most recent history, a few distinct but related features stand out. They are also perceptive in launching their programs on the dreaded "green line" adjoining the National Museum, a site which conjure up images of demarcation, distance and the bounded territoriality of warring factions. Interestingly leaders and spokespersons of these associations are on the whole youthful groups who are too young to have witnessed first hand any of the treacherous events of the war. Thucydides Homericus and the episode of Mykalessus (Th. On Collective Memory, Central Space and National Identity Conference lectured at the symposium "Beirut: Civil Pleasures, Civil Wars". Incidentally, it is these "New Phoenician" voices which captured the attention of the American Legation offices in Beirut at the time; particularly those of Chiha, Gabriel Menassa, Alfred Kettaneh, and their extended network of family circles and close associates of the commercial and political elite. It also creates a bond between the people of that society. This tinge, however, need not be seen as a pathological retreat into a delusionary past. They are embroiled with the testy issues of collective memory, space and national identity. Seen in such a light, objects become the enemy of memory. Expressed more concretely, this reflex or impulse for seeking refuge in cloistered spatial communities is sustained by two seemingly opposed forms of self-preservation: to remember and to forget. In many respects Beirut remains today more a "mosaic" of distinct urban communities than "melting pots" of amorphous urban masses. In other words, the intensity and increasing scale of urbanization as physical phenomenon was not accompanied by a proportional degree of urbanism as a way of life. But Beirut's swift urbanization (the consequences of both internal migration and natural growth rates in the population) carried with it other more disheartening consequences. 2007. By virtue of its centrality and commanding historic setting — almost akin to an open museum of the World's most ancient civilizations — Beirut's central square has always displayed some curious historical features which account for its survival as a fairly open, pluralistic and cosmopolitan urban district. Maurice Halbwachs. A restless and buoyant city is in throes, once again, of redefining itself. The identity of some urban Beirutis — if one were to infer this form the architectural styles of their residences, their mannerisms, fashions and other cultural manifestations of everyday life — was also a hybrid of seemingly dissonant and inconsistent features. It will provide an interdisciplinary framework for discussion focused on the notions of public space, socially and politically based art, and collective memory… Fragoulaki, Maria 2020. 240-258. Space and the collective memory . Will the commemorization be a sober, subdued memorial to recall and dwell upon tragic, lamentable and mournful events? PY - 2016. It has enhanced, in appreciable ways, their spatial sensibilities and public concern for safeguarding the well-being of their living habitat. Google Scholar Legg, S. (2007). Personal memories, autobiographies, nostalgic recollections of one's early childhood and life in gregarious and convivial quarters and neighborhoods of old Beirut are now popular narrative genres. The Collective Memory. Insofar as the degree of urbanization was much more than would be expected from the level of industrialization, then Lebanon was among the few countries — along with Egypt, Greece, and Korea — that may be considered overurbanized (Sovani, 1969). These become the venues for creating and sustaining shared memories. As there are many human groups, there are many types of collective memory, and collective memory … Keywords: Merapi, Batik, Visual Semiotics, Collective Memory, production of Space, Survivors Women iafor The International Academic Forum www.iafor.org. His liberal image of Beirut as a cosmopolitan city-state coexisting with the more archaic tribal and primordial loyalties of those of the mountain and hinterland was, to say the least, a cumbersome and problematic vision. To them the loss of memory is no more but an "antonym to amnesia… the inaccessible, passive other memory that is triggered inadvertently, to denote a situation where memory is constantly present, multiple and celebrated" (Hanssen and Genberg,  2002: 233). Cities are indeed transformed in the course of history. For example, the divisions between wartime partisans and collaborators, which whatever may be said in private, have been largely forgotten in public (see Forty,  2001: 7). This website uses cookies to improve your browsing experience. A cursory stroll of the rehabilitated districts of central Beirut, and those under reconstruction, quickly reveal symptoms of such dissonance. Here again this nostalgic impulse is beginning to assume some redemptive and engaging expressions. With many of these digital spaces becoming incubators for the emerging “participatory culture” (where former consumers become part of the production of culture) the ability to question who contributes to collective memory … George Naccache's pungent aphorism notwithstanding — "deux négations ne font pas une nation" — this double renunciation seemed both feasible and appropriate at the time. Halbwachs further developed the Durkheimian concept of maintenance of effervescence during periods of group isolation and social calm. Yes, and perhaps unavoidably, the uprising has given free vent to some of the vestive, light-hearted and frivolous forms of popular entertainment and fun-loving activities. As staunch advocates of free trade, they were opposed to any form of central planning and protectionism, shunned industrialization, jealously guarded the sources of their new wealth and lived by the edict: "import or die." These remembrances provide the foundation for collective memory… These and other such symptoms of interconnectedness should not, however, be taken to mean that they are becoming more alike or that they are becoming more homogenized by the irresistible forces of globalization and postmodernity. More important, these neighborhoods offered the urban dweller a human scale and types of social networks which he could comprehend and in which he could find a uniquely individual space. Indeed, to many of its articulate historians, philosophers and writers, who often evoke these natural gifts with high and emotive hyperbole, much of their country's accomplishments are seen as an outgrowth of such seemingly dissonant attributes. Indeed, they often remember it so well that they deeply resent being reminded of it. The massive reconstruction efforts underway, particularly around Beirut's historic center, continue to come across, almost daily finds, which reconfirm this most distinguished heritage of its ancient past. But once the unrest subsides, internal cleavages and segmental loyalties resurface. (Forty,  2001: 8). This ongoing project creates a constantly evolving … It is a marvel to live in such an urban milieu where one, literally, never encounters the same familiar and unchanging street or neighborhood. Entire districts may be left in ruins following siege, occupation, and sacking by an invading army. T1 - Public space, collective memory and intercultural dialogue in a (UK) city of culture. Turner, Andrew B. He tells us that. Despite its momentous history, its emergence as a modern, cosmopolitan urban center is of recent vintage. Any land use mapping of the district is bound to reveal the dominance of mass consumerism, retail shops, boutiques restaurants, coffee shops, side walk cafes, night clubs and bars. The winning projects, including by the way of special category for students; will be announced on May 6, 2005, National Martyrs' Day. Quite often global franchises (i.e., McDonald, KFC, Pizza Hut, Dunkin Donuts etc…) "go native" — so-to-speak— by appropriating local elements such as valet parking and other semiotic images of the vernacular to enhance the appeals of their products and services. As a residence for consul-generals, headquarters for French, American and British missions, and growing center of trade and services it gradually began to attract a cosmopolitan and heterogeneous population. Tel. MacCannell (1989) goes further to assert that the ultimate triumph of modernity over other socio-cultural arrangements is epitomized not by the disappearance of pre-modern elements but by their reconstruction and artificial preservation in modern society. The street becomes a locus of collective memory. It is hoped that these introductory considerations, conceptual and otherwise, will serve as a meaningful context to situate and inform the "story" I wish to narrate about the Bourj's historical transformation and the role it is envisaged to play at this critical juncture in Lebanon's history. It was a partial covenant. On the contrary, and in many instances, geography, attachments to place are becoming more important, not less. Therein lies the art of forgetting — art as opposed to ailment, choice rather than compulsion or obligation. First, and without doubt, one of its most striking attributes is the dual role Beirut managed to epitomize throughout its eventful history as a port city and a national capital linked to its hinterland. Pages 101-118. Spontaneous and self-propelled, the uprising — largely because it could exploit the commanding setting of Beirut's historic center — displayed so much daring and inventiveness that it evolved into a formidable public sphere. We are, after all, dealing with the convergence or interplay of three problematic and tenuous realities or considerations: postwar Beirut, regional uncertainties and global incursions. The basic dilemma the Lebanese face today is to know how to remember all the ugly atrocities of the war without lessening their horrors. (Yücesoy, Gökbulut,1999). Neil Jarman's (2001: 171-95) account of the Irish in Belfast epitomizes so graphically the consequences of a people so trapped in their past, so embroiled in reliving their contentious and bloody history that they are unable to free themselves from the constraints of such conflict-prone history. Such realities must be borne in mind as we explore or anticipate the future national image or collective identity Beirut's central square is likely to assume at this juncture in its checkered history. Sustained demonstrations and expressions of collective grievances allowed the protesters to articulate a coherent set of demands and to mobilize normally passive and quiescent groups to participate in popular grass-roots movements in support of the uprising. Likewise, some of the proposals also addressed issues of how to incorporate the Martyrs' Monument (which commemorates the national heroes executed by the Ottomans in 1915 and 1916), or how to envision a war memorial or a monument to celebrate or memorialize all the victims and sacrifices of the civil war. … It is credited for putting an end to nearly two decades of protracted violence for laying the foundation for reconciling differences over the three implacable sources of long standing discord and hostility, namely: political reforms, national identity, and state sovereignty. This was compounded, particularly after 1920, by impassioned claims of the rival ideological currents taking root in the coastal cities. Likewise, the Northern Irish protracted conflict is symptomatic of the fact that the protagonists — both parties and religious groups — were reluctant to forget the elements of their belligerent past that other groups might no longer feel the urge to remember. To Forty, the Western tradition of memory, since the Renaissance, has been founded on the Aristotelian premise that material objects, whether natural or artificial, can act as the analogues or correlates of human memory. 5 Conclusion. Collective memory is also considered in terms of the political uses of the past, where the past is an important resource for those in power. Both, however, could be disabling as the Lebanese are now considering less belligerent strategies for peaceful coexistence. 0 Reviews. As in other dimensions of social life, the network of urban social relations, visiting patterns, and the character of voluntary associations still sustain a large residue of traditional attachments despite increasing secularization and urbanization. Often neighborhoods emerge that consist of families drawn from both the same village and the same religious group, resulting in patterns of segregation in which religious and village ties are reinforced. (2016). Two are particularly poignant and of relevance to the concerns of this essay: First the salient symptoms of "retribalization" apparent in reawakened communal identities and the urge to seek shelter in cloistered spatial communities. Generations of Lebanese, either directly or vicariously, are still old enough to remember those years. When the more divisive issues associated with the war's collective memory; i.e., how, where and in what form can they be recalled are invoked, manifestations of discord and ambivalence become equally contentious. N2 - Using the case study of Derry~Londonderry and its designation as ‘UK City of Culture 2013’, the primary objective of this research paper is to … Vast areas, in addition to the central business district, were totally or partially destroyed. Now space is the reality that endures: … It integrates political, social, and cultural approaches to wartime and post-war control of public space. Boyer, in his book The City of Collective Memory (1994), declares that the city can be defined as a fact of collective memory. Here again, the longing of the Lebanese for a respite from their beleaguering elements of their collective memory, finds parallels in other comparative instances of internecine hostility. Collective memory specifies the temporal parameters of past and future, where we came from and where … It is a joint by-product of three benevolent foundations: Walid Ibn Talal, Rafik Hariri, and Al-Amin Mosque Association. He argues that while the borderline between the monumental and the vernac-ular is fluid, the … (De Certeau,  1984: 108). Except for souqs, khans, baths, places of worship and other public buildings which dominated the town, the prevailing house types were flat-roofed farm houses and the traditional two or three-storied, red-tiled villas with elaborate facades and decorative railed stairways and balconies. Physical and social space, in other words, were almost identical. So are pictorial glossy anthologies of Beirut's urban history, old postcards, maps, and other such collectibles. Preview Buy Chapter … Space of Harmony is an international project for creating and maintaining a universal cognitive space for network communications and project implementation in the collective intelligence format. Preview. Studying the historical layers reveals not just the evolution of the city but also the political views and ideas shaping Sofia’s morphology. It is only when certain artifacts and objects are remembered and, by exclusion, begin to cause others to be forgotten. Identity, tradition and indigenization only make sense contextually (. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication: Vol. Most of all, as amplified by the riveting popular and emancipatory expressions unleached by the murder of Hariri, the Bourj can also nurture and play host to some formidable socio-cultural and political transformations. At least since the 1990s, scholars in the field of collective memory, including Alexander (2004), Hirsch and Smith (2002), Olick and Robbins (1998), and Young (1993), have considered the ways in which the memorialization of cultural trauma is socially and politically contextualized. In general, it is hard to go more … In the final analysis, our self-knowledge our conception of our own character and potentialities is, to a large extent, shaped by the way in which we view our own past action (Connertoon, 1989: 22). A look at the literature of the past few years shows a growing interest on the issues of history and memory… During my life, my national society has been theater for a num­ ber of events that I say I "remember," events that I know about only from … Some, like Charles Malik, Michel Chiha, Said Akl, Kamal elHajj among others speak, with more than just a hint of geographic determinism, of the "horizontal" effects of the sea and the "perpendicular" effects of the mountain to account for the two most distinctive characteristics which informed its distinguished history: the open, adventurous, itinerant and worldly predispositions generated by its seafaring heritage, along with the role its mountains served as a secure asylum for displaced minorities and dissident groups. Collective Memory: Selected full-text books and articles. This was predicated on the assumption that memory loss is inevitable through the passive attrition of time. García-García, Borja (et al.) The massive sustained uprising forced the resignation of the government and precipated a sharply contested political crisis. The protracted civil disturbances of 1975-92 did not only reinforce the communal character of neighborhoods but generated other problems of a far more critical magnitude. While the former is largely involuntary, collective oblivion, on the other hand, is mainly: Adrian Forty (2001), in supporting the view that forgetting is an intentional, deliberate and desirable human response, invokes the classic tradition, particularly the perspectives of Durkhiem, Freud, Ernest Renan, Martin Heidegger and a sampling of a few contemporary cultural theorists and philosophers like Michel de Certeau, Walter Benjamin and Paul Connerton. Monuments commemorate the memorable and embody the myths of beginnings. The city, as we shall see, has never been short on blue prints and envisioned, often idealistic conceptions, of how planners and builders perceive the defining elements and shape of the spatial environment. What Barber is, of course, implying here is that if the memories of the war and its atrocities are kept alive, they will continue to reawaken fear and paranoia, particularly among those embittered by it. Google Scholar In this respect, Beirut offers another grounded and living instance of the production of social space which depart from other common experiences and patterns observed in other settings (see for example, King,  2003; Nasr and Voilet,  2003). The two however, as will be seen, are related. The City of Collective Memory describes a series of different visual and mental models by which the urban environment has been recognized, depicted, and planned. Montalegre, 5 - 08001 Barcelona Search for other works by this author on: This Site. 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